Antonio Gramsci PDF

Jump to navigation Jump to search « Hegemon » redirects here. Later, it could be used to mean « a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society ». In cultural imperialism, the leader state dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence, either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. Greek word ἡγεμονία hēgemonía, antonio Gramsci PDF « authority, rule, political supremacy », related to the word ἡγεμών hēgemōn « leader ».


« Pour vingt ans nous devons empêcher ce cerveau de fonctionner ». C’est par ces mots que le représentant du ministère public, Michele Isgrò commente la sentence qui, le 4 juin 1928, condamne Gramsci à une peine de 20 ans 4 mois et 5 jours de prison. Pourquoi un tel acharnement ? Parce que Mussolini savait combien pouvait être « dangereux », pour le pouvoir fasciste et pour les classes possédantes, un révolutionnaire, secrétaire général du jeune Parti Communiste d’Italie, qui savait allier de façon aussi magistrale profondeur théorique et volonté politique, vision stratégique et habileté tactique. En Gramsci, l’homme de culture et le dirigeant communiste ne font qu’un : en effet, ce n’est pas seulement pour se faire l’historien de la République jacobine ou du Risorgimento, par exemple, que Gramsci s’intéresse à ces grands moments de l’histoire européenne, mais c’est aussi, et surtout, pour examiner et comprendre comment, dans des conditions historiques déterminées, se sont construites ces volontés collectives qui sont les véritables actrices de l’histoire. Et construire une nouvelle volonté collective capable de renverser la domination planétaire du capitalisme libéral, n’est-ce pas le problème politique majeur de notre époque ? La pensée de Gramsci peut nous aider à le résoudre : c’est en cela que par beaucoup d’aspects elle est toujours vivante.

1st and 2nd century Europe was dominated by the hegemonic peace of the Pax Romana. It was instituted by the emperor Augustus, and was accompanied by a series of brutal military campaigns. From the 7th century to the 12th century, the Umayyad Caliphate and later Abbasid Caliphate dominated the vast territories they governed, with other states like the Byzantine Empire paying tribute. In 7th century India, Harsha, ruler of a large empire in northern India from AD 606 to 647, brought most of the north under his hegemony. He preferred not to rule as a central government, but left « conquered kings on their thrones and contenting himself with tribute and homage. From the late 9th to the early 11th century, the empire developed by Charlemagne achieved hegemony in Europe, with dominance over France, Italy and Burgundy.

During the 14th century, the Crown of Aragon became the hegemon in the Mediterranean Sea. In The Politics of International Political Economy, Jayantha Jayman writes « If we consider the Western dominated global system from as early as the 15th century, there have been several hegemonic powers and contenders that have attempted to create the world order in their own images. He lists several contenders for historical hegemony. Based on Portugal’s dominance in navigation. Based on British textiles and command of the high seas.

Based on British industrial supremacy and railroads. In late 16th and 17th-century Holland, the Dutch Republic’s mercantilist dominion was an early instance of commercial hegemony, made feasible with the development of wind power for the efficient production and delivery of goods and services. This, in turn, made possible the Amsterdam stock market and concomitant dominance of world trade. French true hegemony via economic, cultural and military domination of most of Continental Europe. Germany was to be the strongest power in Europe but without being a hegemon.