Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual mies van Der Rohe 1886-1969 : La structure de l’espace PDF and writings. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. The word ‘surrealism’ was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
Trouver la perfection dans la pureté
Célèbre pour sa devise « moins c’est mieux » (less is more), Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) fut un des pères fondateurs de l’architecture moderne et un faiseur d’opinion polémique de l’esthétique et de l’expérience urbaine du vingtième siècle.
La philosophie de Van der Rohe aborde la vérité sous-jacente dans les formes et les proportions pures. Grâce aux progrès techniques et matériels contemporains, il recherche une architecture au minimalisme épuré, qu illustrent des créations comme le Seagram Building et la Farnsworth House. Certains ont critiqué cette approche aride, y voyant les prémisses de paysages urbains fades et génériques. D’autres considèrent Van der Rohe comme le maître incontesté d’une élégance essentielle et durable.
Ce livre présente une vingtaine de projets signés par Van der Rohe entre 1906 et 1967, son travail révolutionnaire et son influence en Amérique et en Europe.
Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, Parade, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade had a one-act scenario by Jean Cocteau and was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as « realistic ». This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit that is making itself felt today and that will certainly appeal to our best minds. The term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917. World War I scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world.
The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances, writings and art works. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values. Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
Freud’s work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. They embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí later proclaimed, « There is only one difference between a madman and me. Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that « one could combine inside the same frame, elements not normally found together to produce illogical and startling effects.
The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects. They wanted to free people from false rationality, and restrictive customs and structures. Breton proclaimed that the true aim of Surrealism was « long live the social revolution, and it alone! To this goal, at various times Surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism. In 1924 two Surrealist factions declared their philosophy in two separate Surrealist Manifestos. That same year the Bureau of Surrealist Research was established, and began publishing the journal La Révolution surréaliste. Leading up to 1924, two rival surrealist groups had formed.